Fallserie des mit Immun-Checkpoint-Inhibitoren behandelten pleomorphen Lungenkarzinoms
Aim: We report, herein, three cases of pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Case 1: A 73-year-old man was diagnosed as having pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung and treated with pembrolizumab alone. However, he showed no response and died 4 months after the initiation of the treatment. Case 2: A 66-year-old man was diagnosed as having pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung. He was started on a combination regimen of pembrolizumab plus carboplatin plus nab-paclitaxel, and a remarkable response was observed. Case 3: A 49-year-old man was diagnosed as having pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung. He was started on pembrolizumab monotherapy as second-line treatment. Eleven months after the treatment initiation, computed tomography revealed the decrease of tumor diameter.
Conclusion: Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy is expected to improve the prognosis of patients with pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung.
Immunaktivierung während einer Paenibacillus -Hirninfektion bei afrikanischen Säuglingen mit häufiger Cytomegalovirus-Koinfektion
Inflammation during neonatal brain infections leads to significant secondary sequelae such as hydrocephalus, which often follows neonatal sepsis in the developing world. In 100 African hydrocephalic infants we identified the biological pathways that account for this response. The dominant bacterial pathogen was a Paenibacillus species, with frequent cytomegalovirus co-infection. A proteogenomic strategy was employed to confirm host immune response to Paenibacillus and to define the interplay within the host immune response network. Immune activation emphasized neuroinflammation, oxidative stress reaction, and extracellular matrix organization.
The innate immune system response included neutrophil activity, signaling via IL-4, IL-12, IL-13, interferon, and Jak/STAT pathways. Platelet-activating factors and factors involved with microbe recognition such as Class I MHC antigen-presenting complex were also increased. Evidence suggests that dysregulated neuroinflammation propagates inflammatory hydrocephalus, and these pathways are potential targets for adjunctive treatments to reduce the hazards of neuroinflammation and risk of hydrocephalus following neonatal sepsis
Tumoren nutzen die FTO-vermittelte Regulation des glykolytischen Metabolismus, um der Immunüberwachung zu entgehen
The ever-increasing understanding of the complexity of factors and regulatory layers that contribute to immune evasion facilitates the development of immunotherapies. However, the diversity of malignant tumors limits many known mechanisms in specific genetic and epigenetic contexts, manifesting the need to discover general driver genes. Here, we have identified the m6A demethylase FTO as an essential epitranscriptomic regulator utilized by tumors to escape immune surveillance through regulation of glycolytic metabolism.
We show that FTO-mediated m6A demethylation in tumor cells elevates the transcription factors c-Jun, JunB, and C/EBPβ, which allows the rewiring of glycolytic metabolism. Fto knockdown impairs the glycolytic activity of tumor cells, which restores the function of CD8+ T cells, thereby inhibiting tumor growth. Furthermore, we developed a small-molecule compound, Dac51, that can inhibit the activity of FTO, block FTO-mediated immune evasion, and synergize with checkpoint blockade for better tumor control, suggesting reprogramming RNA epitranscriptome as a potential strategy for immunotherapy.
Modellierung der kompartimentierten chronischen immunvermittelten demyelinisierenden ZNS-Erkrankung in der Biozzi ABH-Maus
We explored whether experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Biozzi mice recapitulates temporal dynamics of tissue injury, immune-pathogenesis and CNS compartmentalization occurring in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). Chronic EAE exhibited relapsing and progressing disease, partial closure of BBB, reduced tissue inflammatory activity, and development of meningeal ectopic lymphoid tissue, directly opposing (potentially driving) spinal subpial demyelinated plaques.
A T cell predominant disease during relapses transformed into a B cell predominant disease in late chronic EAE, with high serum anti-MOG reactivity. Thus, late chronic Biozzi EAE recapitulates essential features of progressive MS, and is suitable for developing disease modifying and regenerative therapies.
Entwicklung von SARS-CoV-2: Überprüfung von Mutationen, Rolle des Immunsystems des Wirts
Since the reporting of the first cases of coronavirus in China and the publication of the first sequence of SARS-CoV-2 in December 2019, the virus has undergone numerous mutations. In Europe, the spring outbreak (March-April) was followed by a drop in the number of cases and deaths. The disease may have evolved into a milder form. The increase in PCR-positive cases in late summer 2020 did not lead to the expected increase in hospitalizations, ICU admissions, and deaths, based on the severity of the disease in the spring. This difference in disease severity could be due to factors independent of the virus or to the evolution of the virus. This review attempts to identify the mutations that have appeared since the beginning of the pandemic and their role in the temporal evolution of the pandemic.
There are a cell and humoral type cross-reactivity in a large part of the population to common cold coronaviruses (HCoVs) and SARS-CoV-2. Evolutionarily important mutations and deletions have emerged in the SARS-CoV-2 genes encoding proteins that interact with the host immune system. In addition, one of the major mutations (in viral polymerase) is logically associated with a higher frequency of mutations throughout the genome. This frequency fluctuates over time and shows a peak at the time when the epidemic was most active. The rate of mutations in proteins involved in the relationship to the immune system continues to increase after the first outbreak.
The cross-reactivity on the 1 hand and the viral mutations observed on the other hand could explain the evolution of the pandemic until the summer of 2020, partly due to the evolution of the virus in relation to the host immune system. The immunization campaign began in December 2020: concerns are emerging about a possible escape of the circulating variants vaccines in early 2021. These variants could also escape immunity acquired through infection with the 2020 strains.
Optimale evolutionäre Entscheidungsfindung zur Speicherung des Immungedächtnisses
The adaptive immune system provides a diverse set of molecules that can mount specific responses against a multitude of pathogens. Memory is a key feature of adaptive immunity, which allows organisms to respond more readily upon re-infections. However, differentiation of memory cells is still one of the least understood cell fate decisions. Here, we introduce a mathematical framework to characterize optimal strategies to store memory to maximize the utility of immune response over an organism’s lifetime.
We show that memory production should be actively regulated to balance between affinity and cross-reactivity of immune receptors for an effective protection against evolving pathogens. Moreover, we predict that specificity of memory should depend on the organism’s lifespan, and shorter-lived organisms with fewer pathogenic encounters should store more cross-reactive memory. Our framework provides a baseline to gauge the efficacy of immune memory in light of an organism’s coevolutionary history with pathogens.